The Yale Law Journal

Article

Article

Stuck! The Law and Economics of Residential Stagnation

David Schleicher

America has become a nation of homebodies. This Article advances two central claims. First, declining interstate mobility rates create problems for federal macroeconomic policymaking. Second, the Article argues that governments, mostly at the state and local levels, have created a huge number of leg…

Article

How Qualified Immunity Fails

Joanna C. Schwartz

This Article reports the findings of the largest and most comprehensive study to date of the role qualified immunity plays in constitutional litigation. I found that qualified immunity rarely served its intended role as a shield from discovery and trial in these cases.

Article

The Nature of Parenthood

Douglas NeJaime

This Article explores what it means to fully vindicate gender and sexual-orientation equality in the law of parental recognition. It does so by situating the treatment of families formed through ART within a longer history of parentage. Inequalities that persist in contemporary…

Article

Machine Testimony

Andrea Roth

Machines play increasingly crucial roles in establishing facts in legal disputes. Some machines convey information—the images of cameras, the measurements of thermometers, the opinions of expert systems. When a litigant offers a human assertion for its truth, the law subjects…

Article

Inside the Agency Class Action

Michael Sant'Ambrogio & Adam S. Zimmerman

Federal agencies in the United States hear almost twice as many cases each year as all the federal courts. But agencies routinely avoid using tools that courts rely on to efficiently resolve large groups of claims: class actions and other complex litigation procedures. As a re…

Article

Why Have We Criminalized Aggressive War?

Tom Dannenbaum

On the dominant view, accepted by both defenders and critics of the criminalization of aggression, the criminal wrong of aggressive war is inflicted on the attacked state. This view is mistaken. It is true that whether a war is criminally aggressive is determined ordinarily by whether …

Article

Tort Law Inside Out

Cristina Carmody Tilley

For more than a century, scholars have been looking at tort law from the outside in. Theorists committed to external goals like efficient allocation of resources or moral justice have treated tort as a mere vehicle for the achievement of their policy preferences, rather than as a body …

Article

The Origins of Judicial Deference to Executive Interpretation

Aditya Bamzai

Judicial deference to executive statutory interpretation—a doctrine now commonly associated with the Supreme Court’s decision in Chevron v. Natural Resources Defense Council—is one of the central principles in modern American public law. Despite its significance, however, the doc…

Article

Localist Administrative Law

Nestor M. Davidson

To read the voluminous literature on administrative law is to inhabit a world focused almost exclusively on federal agencies. This myopic view, however, ignores the wide array of administrative bodies that make and implement policy at the local-government level. The administrativ…

Article

The Perils of Experimentation

Michael A. Livermore

More than eighty years after Justice Brandeis coined the phrase “laboratories of democracy,” the concept of policy experimentation retains its currency as a leading justification for decentralized governance. This Article examines the downsides of experimentation, and in pa…

Article

Shareholder Proposal Settlements and the Private Ordering of Public Elections

Sarah C. Haan

Reform of campaign finance disclosure has stalled in Congress and at various federal agencies, but it is steadily unfolding in a firm-by-firm program of private ordering. Today, much of what is publicly known about how individual public companies spend money to influence federal, s…

Article

The Cycles of Separation-of-Powers Jurisprudence

Aziz Z. Huq & Jon D. Michaels

abstract.The Supreme Court’s approach to the Constitution’s separation of powers is a puzzle. Although the Justices appear to agree on the doctrine’s goals, in almost every important line of cases the Court oscillates between hard-edged rules and open-textured standards. The Court’s seem…

Article

The New Labor Law

Kate Andrias

Labor law is failing. Disfigured by courts, attacked by employers, and rendered inapt by a global and fissured economy, many of labor law’s most ardent proponents have abandoned it altogether. And for good reason: the law that governs collective organization and bargaining am…

Article

Probate Lending

David Horton & Andrea Cann Chandrasekher

One of the most controversial trends in American civil justice is litigation lending: corporations paying plaintiffs a lump sum in return for a stake in a pending lawsuit. Although causes of action were once inalienable, many jurisdictions have abandoned this bright-line prohibitio…

Article

The President’s Budget as a Source of Agency Policy Control

Eloise Pasachoff

A large body of literature in administrative law discusses presidential control of executive agencies through centralized review of regulations in the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs (OIRA), part of the White House’s Office of Management and Budget (OMB). Largely…

Article

Foundling Fathers: (Non-)Marriage and Parental Rights in the Age of Equality

Serena Mayeri

The twentieth-century equality revolution established the principle of sex neutrality in the law of marriage and divorce and eased the most severe legal disabilities traditionally imposed upon nonmarital children. Formal equality under the law eluded nonmarital parents, however…

Article

Administrative Forbearance

Daniel T. Deacon

This Article investigates the normative and constitutional case for a particular form of congressional delegation that is of increasing practical importance: delegations that give agencies the power to deprive statutory provisions of legal force and effect, a power this Artic…

Article

Governance Reform and the Judicial Role in Municipal Bankruptcy

Clayton P. Gillette & David A. Skeel, Jr.

Recent proceedings involving large municipalities such as Detroit, Stockton, and Vallejo illustrate both the utility and limitations of using the Bankruptcy Code to adjust municipal debt. In this Article, we contend that, to resolve fully the distress of a substantial city, mun…

Article

Professional Speech

Claudia E. Haupt

Professionals speak in the course of exercising their profession. At the same time, the state can regulate the professions. What is the permissible scope of regulation of the professions as distinct from regulation of professional speech? This Article provides a comprehensive a…

Article

The Lost “Effects” of the Fourth Amendment: Giving Personal Property Due Protection

Maureen E. Brady

In addition to “persons, houses, [and] papers,” the Constitution protects individuals against unreasonable searches and seizures of “effects.” However, “effects” have received considerably less attention than the rest of the categories in the Fourth Amendment. Rec…

Article

The First Patent Litigation Explosion

Christopher Beauchamp

The twenty-first century “patent litigation explosion” is not unprecedented. In fact, the nineteenth century saw an even bigger surge of patent cases. During that era, the most prolific patent enforcers brought hundreds or even thousands of suits, dwarfing the efforts of toda…

Article

Corporate Control and Idiosyncratic Vision

Zohar Goshen & Assaf Hamdani

This Article offers a novel theory of corporate control. It does so by shedding new light on corporate-ownership structures and challenging the prevailing model of controlling shareholders as essentially opportunistic actors who seek to reap private benefits at the expense of minor…

Article

The Un-Territoriality of Data

Jennifer Daskal

Territoriality looms large in our jurisprudence, particularly as it relates to the government’s authority to search and seize. Fourth Amendment rights turn on whether the search or seizure takes place territorially or extraterritorially; the government’s surveillance authorit…

Article

Political Entrenchment and Public Law

Daryl Levinson & Benjamin I. Sachs

Courts and legal scholars have long been concerned with the problem of “entrenchment”—the ways that incumbents insulate themselves and their favored policies from the normal processes of democratic change. But this wide swath of case law and sch…

Article

Against Immutability

Jessica A. Clarke

Courts often hold that antidiscrimination law protects “immutable” characteristics, like sex and race. In a series of recent cases, gay rights advocates have persuaded courts to expand the concept of immutability to include not just those traits an individual cannot change, but…

Article

The President and Immigration Law Redux

Adam B. Cox & Cristina M. Rodríguez

In November 2014, President Obama announced his intention to dramatically reshape immigration law through administrative channels. Together with relief policies announced in 2012, his initiatives would shield nearly half the population of unauthorized immigrants from removal and en…

Article

The New Corporate Web: Tailored Entity Partitions and Creditors’ Selective Enforcement

Anthony J. Casey

Firms have developed sophisticated legal mechanisms that partition assets across some dimensions but not others. The result is a complex web of interconnected affiliates. For example, an asset placed in one legal entity may serve as collateral guaranteeing the debts of anot…

Article

Defining and Punishing Offenses Under Treaties

Sarah H. Cleveland & William S. Dodge

One of the principal aims of the U.S. Constitution was to give the federal government authority to comply with its international legal commitments. The scope of Congress’s constitutional authority to implement treaties has recently received particu…

Article

Administrative Severability Clauses

Charles W. Tyler & E. Donald Elliott

Severability clauses can help administrative agencies minimize the damage caused by judicial review and can make the regulatory environment more efficient, participatory, and predictable. Yet agencies rarely include these clauses in their rules becaus…

Article

The Constitutional Duty To Supervise

Gillian E. Metzger

The IRS targets Tea Party organizations’ applications for nonprofit tax-exempt status for special scrutiny. Newly opened online federal health exchanges fail to function. Officials at some Veterans Administration hospitals engage in widespread falsi…

Article

Architectural Exclusion: Discrimination and Segregation Through Physical Design of the Built Environment

Sarah Schindler

The built environment is characterized by man-made physical features that make it difficult for certain individuals—often poor people and people of color—to access certain places. Bridges were designed to be so low that buses could not pass under …

Article

Article III Judicial Power, the Adverse-Party Requirement, and Non-Contentious Jurisdiction

James E. Pfander & Daniel D. Birk

Students of Article III have so far failed to resolve a fundamental tension in the theory of federal adjudication. On the one hand, Article III has been said to limit the federal courts to the resolution of concrete disputes between adverse parties, one of whom seeks redress for an …

Article

Beyond Diversification: The Pervasive Problem of Excessive Fees and "Dominated Funds" in 401(k) Plans

Ian Ayres & Quinn Curtis

Notwithstanding ERISA’s fiduciary requirements, a significant portion of 401(k) plans establish investment menus that predictably lead investors to hold high-cost portfolios. Using data from more than 3,500 401(k) plans with more than $120 billion i…

Article

The Uneasy Case for Favoring Long-Term Shareholders

Jesse M. Fried

This Article challenges a persistent and pervasive view in corporate law and corporate governance: that a firm’s managers should favor long-term shareholders over short-term shareholders, and maximize long-term shareholders’ returns rather than th…

Article

Deviance, Aspiration, and the Stories We Tell: Reconciling Mass Atrocity and the Criminal Law

Saira Mohamed

The historian Raul Hilberg once observed that we would all be happier if we believed the perpetrators of the Holocaust were crazy. But mass atrocity is never so simple. We may search in Germany, Bosnia, the Congo, or Rwanda for the madman or the devi…

Article

Cost-Benefit Analysis of Financial Regulation: Case Studies and Implications

John C. Coates IV

Some members of Congress, the D.C. Circuit, and the legal academy are promoting a particular, abstract form of cost-benefit analysis for financial regulation: judicially enforced quantification. How would CBA work in practice, if applied to specific,…

Article

Beyond the Indian Commerce Clause

Gregory Ablavsky

The Supreme Court has described the Indian Commerce Clause as the primary constitutional basis for federal exclusive and plenary power over Indian affairs. Recently, Justice Clarence Thomas, citing current scholarship, has argued that the Clause’s …

Article

Rules Against Rulification

Michael Coenen

The Supreme Court often confronts the choice between bright-line rules and open-ended standards—a point well understood by commentators and the Court itself. Less well understood is a related choice that arises once the Court has opted for a standard over a r…

Article

The Limits of Enumeration

Richard Primus

According to a well-known principle of constitutional interpretation here identified as the “internal-limits canon,” the powers of Congress must always be construed as authorizing less legislation than a general police power would. This Article a…

Article

Agency Enforcement of Spending Clause Statutes: A Defense of the Funding Cut-Off

Eloise Pasachoff

This Article contends that federal agencies ought more frequently to use the threat of cutting off funds to state and local grantees that are not adequately complying with the terms of a grant statute. Scholars tend to offer four arguments to explain—and often to justify—agen…

Article

Criminal Attempts

Gideon Yaffe

The intuitive idea that failed attempts to complete crimes are often themselves crimes belies the complexity and confusion surrounding the adjudication of criminal attempts. This Article offers an account of the grounds for the criminalization of att…

Article

Self-Help and the Separation of Powers

David E. Pozen

Self-help doctrines pervade the law. They regulate a legal subject’s attempts to cure or prevent a perceived wrong by her own action, rather than through a mediated process. In their most acute form, these doctrines allow subjects to take what international lawyers call count…

Article

Illegitimate Borders: Jus Sanguinis Citizenship and the Legal Construction of Family, Race, and Nation

Kristin A. Collins

Tracing the racially nativist origins of modern gender-based derivative citizenship law

Article

Legitimacy and Federal Criminal Enforcement Power

Lauren M. Ouziel

The sources of forum disparities in criminal justice reconsidered

Article

The Power to Threaten War

Matthew C. Waxman

Reframing the war powers debate

Article

The New Minimal Cities

Michelle Wilde Anderson

Between 2007 and 2013, twenty-eight urban municipalities declared bankruptcy or entered a state receivership to manage fiscal insolvency. To cut costs and divert revenues to debt payments, these cities have taken dramatic austerity measures—an unwitting experiment wit…

Article

The Separation of Funds and Managers: A Theory of Investment Fund Structure and Regulation

John Morley

abstract.This Article offers a broad theory of what distinguishes investment funds from ordinary companies, with ramifications for how these funds are understood and regulated. The central claim is that investment funds (i.e., mutual funds, hedge funds, private equity funds, and their …

Article

Leviathan and Interpretive Revolution: The Administrative State, the Judiciary, and the Rise of Legislative History, 1890-1950

Nicholas R. Parrillo

A generation ago, it was common and uncontroversial for federal judges to rely upon legislative history when interpreting a statute. But since the 1980s, the textualist movement, led by Justice Scalia, has urged the banishment of legislative history from the judicial system. The result…

Article

The Interpretation-Construction Distinction in Patent Law

Tun-Jen Chiang & Lawrence B. Solum

The ambiguity of claim language is generally considered to be the most important problem in patent law today. Linguistic ambiguity is believed to cause tremendous uncertainty about patent rights. Scholars and judges have accordingly devoted enormous attention to develop…

Article

The Evolution of Shareholder Voting Rights: Separation of Ownership and Consumption

Henry Hansmann & Mariana Pargendler

The nineteenth century saw the standardization and rapid spread of the modern business corporation around the world. Yet those early corporations differed from their contemporary counterparts in important ways. Most obviously, they commonly deviated from the one-share-one…

Article

Ice Cube Bonds: Allocating the Price of Process in Chapter 11 Bankruptcy

Melissa B. Jacoby & Edward J. Janger

In Chrysler’s Chapter 11 bankruptcy, a finding that the debtor was losing $100 million per day justified the hurry-up sale of the company to Fiat. The assertion that a firm is a melting ice cube is frequently offered, soon after a bankruptcy filing, to justify a qui…

Article

Agencies as Litigation Gatekeepers

David Freeman Engstrom

A central challenge in the modern regulatory state is rationalizing and coordinating multiple, overlapping, and interdependent public and private enforcement mechanisms. To that end, recent years have seen mounting calls to vest administrative agencies with litigation …

Article

Firearm Localism

Joseph Blocher

This Article argues that Second Amendment doctrine and state preemption laws can and should incorporate longstanding and sensible differences between urban and rural gun use and regulation. Doing so would protect rural gun culture while permitting cities to address urban gun violence.

Article

City Unplanning

David Schleicher


122 Yale L.J. 1670 (2013).

Generations of scholarship on the political economy of land use have tried to explain a world in which tony suburbs use zoning to keep out development but big cities allow untrammeled growth because of the political influence of developers. But as demand to live in them has…

Article

Rethinking the Federal Eminent Domain Power

William Baude


122 Yale L.J. 1738 (2013).

It is black-letter law that the federal government has the power to take land through eminent domain. This modern understanding, however, is a complete departure from the Constitution’s historical meaning.

From the Founding until the Civil War, the federal government was t…

Article

The Riddle of Rape-by-Deception and the Myth of Sexual Autonomy

Jed Rubenfeld


122 Yale L.J. 1372 (2013).

“Rape-by-deception” is almost universally rejected in American criminal law. But if rape is sex without the victim’s consent—as many courts, state statutes, and scholars say it is—then sex-by-deception ought to be rape, because as courts have held for a hundred years in vir…

Article

Commandeering and Constitutional Change

Wesley J. Campbell


122 Yale L.J. 1104 (2013).

Coming in the midst of the Rehnquist Court’s federalism revolution, Printz v. United States held that federal commandeering of state executive officers is “fundamentally incompatible with our constitutional system of dual sovereignty.” The Printz majority’s discussion of hi…

Article

Parallel Exclusion

C. Scott Hemphill & Tim Wu


122 Yale L.J. 1182 (2013).

Scholars and courts have long debated whether and when “parallel pricing”—adoption of the same price by every firm in a market—should be considered a violation of antitrust law. But there has been a comparative neglect of the importance of “parallel exclusion”—conduct, enga…

Article

Text, History, and Tradition: What the Seventh Amendment Can Teach Us About the Second

Darrell A.H. Miller


122 Yale L.J. 852 (2013).

In District of Columbia v. Heller and McDonald v. City of Chicago, the Supreme Court made seemingly irreconcilable demands on lower courts: evaluate Second Amendment claims through history, avoid balancing, and retain as much regulation as possible. To date, lower courts hav…

Article

Fudging the Nudge: Information Disclosure and Restaurant Grading

Daniel E. Ho


122 Yale L.J. 574 (2012).

One of the most promising regulatory currents consists of “targeted” disclosure: mandating simplified information disclosure at the time of decisionmaking to “nudge” parties along. Its poster child is restaurant sanitation grading. In principle, a simple posted letter grade …

Article

The Disappearance of Civil Trial in the United States

John H. Langbein


122 Yale L.J. 522 (2012).

Since the 1930s, the proportion of civil cases concluded at trial has declined from about 20% to below 2% in the federal courts and below 1% in state courts. This Article looks to the history of the civil trial to explain why the trial endured so long and then vanished so ra…

Article

Welfare and Rights Before the Movement: Rights as a Language of the State

Karen M. Tani


122 Yale L.J. 314 (2012).

In conversations about government assistance, rights language often emerges as a danger: when benefits become “rights,” policymakers lose flexibility, taxpayers suffer, and the poor lose their incentive to work. Absent from the discussion is an understanding of how, when, …

Article

Aggregation and Law

Ariel Porat & Eric A. Posner


122 Yale L.J. 2 (2012).

If a plaintiff brings two claims, each with a 0.4 probability of being valid, the plaintiff will usually lose, even if the claims are based on independent events, and thus the probability of at least one of the claims being valid is 0.64. If a plaintiff brings two independent …

Article

A Decision Theory of Statutory Interpretation: Legislative History by the Rules

Victoria F. Nourse


122 Yale L.J. 70 (2012).

We have a law of civil procedure, criminal procedure, and administrative procedure, but we have no law of legislative procedure. This failure has serious consequences in the field of statutory interpretation. Using simple rules garnered from Congress itself, this Article ar…

Article

Randomized Evaluation in Legal Assistance: What Difference Does Representation (Offer and Actual Use) Make?

D. James Greiner & Cassandra Wolos Pattanayak


121 Yale L.J. 2118 (2012).

We report the results of the first of a series of randomized evaluations of legal assistance programs. This series of evaluations is designed to measure the effect of both an offer of and the actual use of representation, although it was not possible in the first study …

Article

Regulating Opt-Out: An Economic Theory of Altering Rules

Ian Ayres


121 Yale L.J. 2032 (2012)
.

Whenever a rule is contractible, the law must establish separate rules governing how private parties can contract around the default legal treatment. To date, contract theorists have not developed satisfying theories for how to set “altering rules,” the rules that establish…

Article

Voting and Vice: Criminal Disenfranchisement and the Reconstruction Amendments

Richard M. Re & Christopher M. Re


121 Yale L.J. 1584 (2012).

The Reconstruction Amendments are justly celebrated for transforming millions
of recent slaves into voting citizens. Yet this legacy of egalitarian enfranchisement had a flip side.
In arguing that voting laws should not discriminate on the basis of morally insignificant statu…

Article

Rights and Votes

Daryl J. Levinson

121 Yale L.J. 1286.

This Article explores the functional similarities, residual differences, and interrelationships between rights and votes, both conceived as tools for protecting minorities (or other vulnerable groups) from the tyranny of majorities (or other dominant social and political actors). …

Article

Dissolving Cities

Michelle Wilde Anderson


121 Yale L.J. 1364.

During the twentieth century, thousands of new cities took shape across America. Stucco subdivisions sprawled and law followed, enabling suburbs to adopt independent governments. That story is familiar. But meanwhile, something else was also happening. A smaller but sizable numb…

Article

What Is Tax Discrimination?

Ruth Mason & Michael S. Knoll


121 Yale L.J. 1014 (2012).


Prohibitions of tax discrimination have long appeared in constitutions, tax treaties, trade treaties, and other sources, but despite their ubiquity, little agreement exists as to how such provisions should be interpreted. Some commentators have concluded that tax discrimina…

Article

Burden of Proof

Louis Kaplow


121 Yale L.J. 738 (2012).

The burden of proof is a central feature of all systems of adjudication, yet one that has been subject to little normative analysis. This Article examines how strong evidence should have to be in order to assign liability when the objective is to maximize social welfare. I…

Article

Patent Inflation

Jonathan Masur


121 Yale L.J. 470 (2011).

For more than two decades, the Patent and Trademark Office (PTO) and the Federal Circuit have exercised nearly complete institutional control over the patent system. Yet in recent years their stewardship has been widely criticized, largely on the basis of two particular fail…

Article

Outcasting: Enforcement in Domestic and International Law

Oona Hathaway & Scott J. Shapiro


121 Yale L.J. 252 (2011).

This Article offers a new way to understand the enforcement of domestic and international law that we call “outcasting.” Unlike the distinctive method that modern states use to enforce their law, outcasting is nonviolent: it does not rely on bureaucratic organizations, such …

Article

Prods and Pleas: Limited Government in an Era of Unlimited Harm

Benjamin Ewing & Douglas A. Kysar

 

121 Yale L.J. 350 (2011).

Not just a system of checks and balances ideally tuned to constrain collective political action, the constitutional division of authority also may be seen as a system of “prods and pleas” in which distinct governmental branches and actors can push each other to entertai…

Article

Misalignments in Tort Law

Ariel Porat

121 Yale L.J. 82 (2011).

In negligence law, the risks taken into account by courts when setting the standard
of care are the same risks considered when imposing liability and awarding damages. I call this
the “alignment principle.” One objective of this Article is to expose exceptions to the alignment
p…

Article

The Architecture of Jurisprudence

Jules L. Coleman


121 Yale L.J. 2 (2011).


Contemporary jurisprudence has been dominated by an unhelpful interest in
taxonomy. A conventional wisdom has grown up around these projects. This Article, the first in
a three-part series, identifies two dominant claims of this conventional wisdom in
jurisprudence—one substantiv…

Article

Intersystemic Statutory Interpretation: Methodology as “Law” and the Erie Doctrine

Abbe R. Gluck

120 Yale L.J. 1898 (2011). 

Do the Erie Doctrine and its “reverse-Erie” mirror require state and federal courts to apply one another’s statutory interpretation methodologies when they interpret one another’s statutes? Surprisingly, the courts have no consistent answer to this question—even though s…

Article

Intersystemic Statutory Interpretation: Methodology as “Law” and the Erie Doctrine

Abbe R. Gluck

120 Yale L.J. 1898 (2011). 

Do the Erie Doctrine and its “reverse-Erie” mirror require state and federal courts to apply one another’s statutory interpretation methodologies when they interpret one another’s statutes? Surprisingly, the courts have no consistent answer to this question—even though s…

Article

Taxation and Liquidity

Yair Listokin

120 Yale L.J. 1682 (2011). 

One of the principal determinants of an asset’s return is its liquidity—the ease with which the asset can be bought and sold. Liquid assets yield a lower return than do otherwise comparable illiquid assets. This Article demonstrates that an income tax alters the trad…

Article

The Inducement Standard of Patentability

Michael Abramowicz & John F. Duffy

120 Yale L.J. 1590 (2011). 

In Graham v. John Deere Co., the Supreme Court explained that patent law’s nonobviousness doctrine is meant to restrict the award of patents to only “those inventions which would not be disclosed or devised but for the inducement of a patent.” This Article argues t…

Article

From Colorblindness to Antibalkanization: An Emerging Ground of Decision in Race Equality Cases

Reva B. Siegel

120 Yale L.J. 1278 (2011). 

For decades, the Supreme Court has sharply divided in equal protection race discrimination cases. As commonly described, the Justices disagree about whether the Equal Protection Clause is properly interpreted through a colorblind anticlassification principle concerned wi…

Article

Allocating Power Within Agencies

Elizabeth Magill & Adrian Vermeule

120 Yale L.J. 1032 (2011). 

Standard questions in the theory of administrative law involve the allocation of power among legislatures, courts, the President, and various types of agencies. These questions are often heavily informed by normative commitments to particular allocations of governmental …

Article

Associational Speech

Ashutosh Bhagwat

120 Yale L.J. 978 (2011). 

This Article explores the relationship between the First Amendment right of free speech and the nontextual First Amendment right of freedom of association. The Article provides important and new insights into this area of law, drawing upon recent scholarship to urge a sub…

Article

Discrimination by Comparison

Suzanne B. Goldberg

120 Yale L.J. 728 (2011). 

Contemporary discrimination law is in crisis, both methodologically and conceptually. The crisis arises in large part from the judiciary’s dependence on comparators—those who are like a discrimination claimant but for the protected characteristic—as a favored heuris…

Article

Remedies On and Off Contract

Richard R.W. Brooks & Alexander Stremitzer

120 Yale L.J. 690 (2011). 

Liberal allowance of rescission followed by restitution has, for centuries, unsettled legal authorities who fear it as a threat to commercial order or other normative values. Responding to these fears, authorities have limited the ease with which rescission may be elected…

Article

The One and Only Substantive Due Process Clause

Ryan C. Williams

120 Yale L.J. 408 (2010). 

The nature and scope of the rights protected by the Due Process Clauses of the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments are among the most debated topics in all of constitutional law. At the core of this debate is the question of whether these clauses should be understood to prote…

Article

Legislative Rules, Nonlegislative Rules, and the Perils of the Short Cut

David L. Franklin

120 Yale L.J. 276 (2010). 

Courts have long struggled to distinguish legislative rules, which are designed to have binding legal effect and must go through the rulemaking procedure known as notice and comment, from nonlegislative rules, which are not meant to have binding legal effect and are exemp…

Article

Withdrawing from International Custom

Curtis A. Bradley & Mitu Gulati

120 Yale L.J. 202 (2010). 

Treaties are negotiated, usually written down, and often subject to cumbersome domestic ratification processes. Nonetheless, nations often have the right to withdraw unilaterally from them. By contrast, the conventional wisdom is that nations never have the legal right to…

Article

Taking Exit Rights Seriously: Why Governance and Fee Litigation Don't Work in Mutual Funds

John Morley & Quinn Curtis

120 Yale L.J. 84 (2010). 

Unlike shareholders of ordinary companies, mutual fund shareholders do not sell their shares—they redeem them from the issuing funds for cash. We argue that this unique form of exit almost completely eliminates mutual fund investors’ incentives to use voting, boards, a…

Article

Patent Law and the Two Cultures

Peter Lee

120 Yale L.J. 2 (2010). 

A half-century ago, author and physicist C.P. Snow warned of a “gulf of mutual incomprehension” between the liberal arts and sciences. Snow’s “Two Cultures” thesis is particularly relevant to patent law, a realm where law and science intersect. Drawing on Snow’s…

Article

The States as Laboratories of Statutory Interpretation: Methodological Consensus and the New Modified Textualism

Abbe R. Gluck

119 Yale L.J. 1750 (2010). 

This Article offers the first close study of statutory interpretation in several state courts of last resort. While academics have spent the past decade speculating about the “death of textualism,” the utility of legislated rules of interpretation, and the capacity o…

Article

Contract, Race, and Freedom of Labor in the Constitutional Law of "Involuntary Servitude"

James Gray Pope

119 Yale L.J. 1474 (2010). 

The Supreme Court has yet to adopt and apply a standard for assessing labor rights claims under the Involuntary Servitude Clause. This Article suggests that one may be found in the leading decision of Pollock v. Williams (1944), which contains the Court’s most thorough…

Article

Federal Administration and Administrative Law in the Gilded Age

Jerry L. Mashaw

119 Yale L.J. 1362 (2010). 

The dominant story of America’s so-called “Gilded Age” describes an era of private excess and public corruption. In a rapidly industrializing society, private capital, in league with venal politicians, ran roughshod over a national state apparatus incapable of resp…

Article

The Politics of Nature: Climate Change, Environmental Law, and Democracy

Jedediah Purdy

119 Yale L.J. 1122 (2010). 

Legal scholars’ discussions of climate change assume that the issue is one mainly of engineering incentives, and that “environmental values” are too weak, vague, or both to spur political action to address the emerging crisis. This Article gives reason to believe o…

Article

Strategic Vagueness in Contract Design: The Case of Corporate Acquisitions

Albert Choi & George Triantis

119 Yale L.J. 848 (2010). 

The unprecedented and unanticipated economic and financial shocks of the past couple of years have led parties to look for contractual escapes from deals. As the current crisis works its way through our economic system, however, attention will be shifted from the collaps…

Article

Antibankruptcy

Douglas G. Baird & Robert K. Rasmussen

119 Yale L.J. 648 (2010). 

In large Chapter 11 cases, the prototypical creditor is no longer a small player holding a claim much like everyone else’s, but rather a distressed debt professional advancing her own agenda. Secured creditors are more pervasive and enjoy much more control than they had e…

Article

Fourth Amendment Seizures of Computer Data

Orin S. Kerr

119 Yale L.J. 700 (2010). 

What does it mean to “seize” computer data for Fourth Amendment purposes? Does copying data amount to a seizure, and if so, when? This Article argues that copying data “seizes” it under the Fourth Amendment when copying occurs without human observation and interrupts the …

Article

Property as Process: How Innovation Markets Select Innovation Regimes

Jonathan M. Barnett

119 Yale L.J. 384 (2009). 

It is commonly asserted that innovation markets suffer from excessive intellectual property protections, which in turn stifle output. But empirical inquiries can neither confirm nor deny this assertion. Under the agnostic assumption that we cannot assess directly whether …

Article

The President and Immigration Law

Adam B. Cox & Cristina M. Rodríguez

119 Yale L.J. 458 (2009). 

The plenary power doctrine sharply limits the judiciary’s power to police immigration regulation—a fact that has preoccupied immigration law scholars for decades. But scholars’ persistent focus on the distribution of power between the courts and the political branches has…

Article

Government in Opposition

David Fontana

119 Yale L.J. 548 (2009).

In the past generation, in countries in all parts of the world, using all different forms of constitutional government, a new form of separation of powers has emerged in greater numbers, what this Article calls “government in opposition.” After democratic elections are …

Article

Presidential Power over International Law: Restoring the Balance

Oona A. Hathaway

119 Yale L.J. 140 (2009). 

The vast majority of U.S. international agreements today are made by the President acting alone. Little noticed and rarely discussed, the agreements are concluded in a process almost completely hidden from outside view. This state of affairs is the result of a longterm tr…

Article

Proposing a Place for Politics in Arbitrary and Capricious Review

Kathryn A. Watts

119 Yale L.J. 2 (2009). 

Current conceptions of “arbitrary and capricious” review focus on whether agencies have adequately explained their decisions in statutory, factual, scientific, or otherwise technocratic terms. Courts, agencies, and scholars alike, accordingly, generally have accepted th…

Article

In Defense of Property

Kristen A. Carpenter, Sonia K. Katyal, & Angela R. Riley

118 Yale L.J. 1022 (2009).

 

This Article responds to an emerging view, in scholarship and popular society, that it is normatively undesirable to employ property law as a means of protecting indigenous cultural heritage. Recent critiques suggest that propertizing culture impedes the free flow of i…

Article

Uncooperative Federalism

Jessica Bulman-Pozen & Heather K. Gerken

118 Yale L.J. 1256 (2009). 

This Essay addresses a gap in the federalism literature. Scholars have offered two distinct visions of federal-state relations. The first depicts states as rivals and challengers to the federal government, roles they play by virtue of being autonomous policymakers outsid…

Article

The Classic Rule of Faith and Credit

David E. Engdahl

118 Yale L.J. 1584 (2009).

 

Since the late nineteenth century, orthodox doctrine under the Constitution’s Full Faith and Credit Clause has presumed that the interpretation of that Clause set forth in Justice Joseph Story’s 1833 Commentaries on the Constitution of the United States was essentially…

Article

The Case for Symmetry in Creditors' Rights

Richard Squire

118 Yale L.J. 806 (2009).

 

Using an original framework for evaluating bankruptcy rules, this Article casts doubt on the efficiency of legal arrangements that give some creditors an absolute advantage over others in the division of a debtor’s assets. Such arrangements, which I classify as asymmetr…

Article

Clearing the Smoke from Philip Morris v. Williams: The Past, Present, and Future of Punitive Damages

Thomas B. Colby

118 Yale L.J. 392 (2008).

 

In Philip Morris USA v. Williams, the Supreme Court held that the Constitution does not permit the imposition of punitive damages to punish a defendant for harm caused to third parties. This Article critiques the reasoning, but seeks ultimately to vindicate the result, …

Article

Learning Through Policy Variation

Yair Listokin

118 Yale L.J. 480 (2008).

 

Rationalist analysis of policymaking, exemplified by cost-benefit analysis, ignores the variance in outcomes associated with policies and seeks to maximize expected outcomes. Burkeans, by contrast, view policy outcome uncertainty negatively. The Burkean approach is echo…

Article

Suspension as an Emergency Power

Amanda L. Tyler

118 Yale L.J. 600 (2009).

 

As the war on terrorism continues, and along with it a heated debate over the scope of executive authority in times of national emergency, one important question deserves careful attention: how much power may Congress vest in the executive to address the crisis at hand …

Article

The Ideology of Authorship Revisited: Authors, Markets, and Liberal Values in Early American Copyright

Oren Bracha

118 Yale L.J. 186 (2008).

The concept of the author is deemed to be central to copyright law. An important strand of copyright scholarship explores how the development of modern copyright law was intertwined with the rise of a new ideology of authorship as an individualist act of creation ex nihilo…

Article

The Price of Public Action: Constitutional Doctrine and the Judicial Manipulation of Legislative Enactment Costs

Matthew C. Stephenson

118 Yale L.J. 2 (2008).

This Article argues that courts can, and often should, implement constitutional guarantees by crafting doctrines that raise the costs to government decisionmakers of enacting constitutionally problematic policies. This indirect approach may implement a kind of implicit balan…

Article

Normative Canons in the Review of Administrative Policymaking

Kenneth A. Bamberger

118 Yale L.J. 64 (2008).

 

Who should ensure that statutes are interpreted to reflect background norms left unaddressed by Congress—norms like respect for the rights of regulated parties, protection of the interests of states and Native American tribes, avoidance of government bias, and the separa…

Article

Administration and "The Democracy": Administrative Law from Jackson to Lincoln, 1829-1861

Jerry L. Mashaw

117 Yale L.J. 1568 (2008).

Jacksonian America was a country in rapid transition. Intensified sectional divisions, exponential increases in urbanization and immigration, the rise of factory production, and repeated cycles of economic boom and bust helped to fuel an anxious desire for political refor…

Article

Treaties' End: The Past, Present, and Future of International Lawmaking in the United States

Oona A. Hathaway

117 Yale L.J. 1236 (2008).

Nearly every international agreement that is made through the Treaty Clause should be approved by both houses of Congress as a congressional-executive agreement instead. In making this case, this Article examines U.S. international lawmaking through empirical, comparative…

Article

Just Semantics: The Lost Readings of the Americans with Disabilities Act

Jill C. Anderson

117 Yale L.J. 992 (2008).

Disability rights advocates and commentators agree that the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) has veered far off course from the Act’s mandate of protecting people with actual or perceived disabilities from discrimination. They likewise agree that the fault lies in the…

Article

Race and Democratic Contestation

Michael S. Kang

117 Yale L.J. 734 (2008).

As the Voting Rights Act of 1965 (VRA) passes its fortieth anniversary and faces upcoming constitutional challenges to its recent renewal, a growing number of liberals and conservatives, once united in support, now share deep reservations about it. This Article argues that…

Article

The Access to Knowledge Mobilization and the New Politics of Intellectual Property

Amy Kapczynski

117 Yale L.J. 804 (2008).

Intellectual property law was once an arcane subject. Today it is at the center of some of the most highly charged political contests of our time. In recent years, college students, subsistence farmers, AIDS activists, genomic scientists, and free-software programmers have…

Article

Antislavery Courts and the Dawn of International Human Rights Law

Jenny S. Martinez

117 Yale L.J. 550 (2008).

Between 1817 and 1871, bilateral treaties between Britain and several other countries (eventually including the United States) led to the establishment of international courts for the suppression of the slave trade. Though all but forgotten today, these antislavery courts …

Article

Consumerism Versus Producerism: A Study in Comparative Law

James Q. Whitman

117 Yale L.J. 340 (2007).

The spread of American-style “consumerism” is a burning global issue today. The most visible symbols of American consumerism, large enterprises like Wal-Mart and McDonald’s, attract vitriolic attacks in many parts of the world. Political conflict in Europe (and elsewhere) …

Article

The Constitution Outside the Constitution

Ernest A. Young

117 Yale L.J. 408 (2007).

Countries lacking a single canonical text define the “constitution” to include all laws that perform the constitutive functions of creating governmental institutions and conferring rights on individuals. The British Constitution, for example, includes a variety of constitu…

Article

The Promise and Pitfalls of the New Voting Rights Act

Nathaniel Persily

117 Yale L.J. 174 (2007).

In the summer of 2006, Congress reauthorized the expiring provisions of the Voting Rights Act (VRA) with a unanimous vote in the Senate and with limited opposition in the House of Representatives. The veneer of bipartisanship that outsiders perceived in the final vote glos…

Article

Contracting for Cooperation in Recovery

Gregory Klass

117 Yale L.J. 2 (2007).

There is a longstanding debate about whether courts should enforce contract terms purporting to limit the parties’ liability for fraud. It is less-often noticed that many contracts are designed to incorporate fraud liability by requiring one party to make representations abo…

Article

Intellectual Property as Property: Delineating Entitlements in Information

Henry E. Smith

This Article proposes that intellectual property’s close relationship to property stems from the role that information costs play in the delineation and enforcement of exclusion rights. As theorists have emphasized, the nonrivalness of information causes exclusive rights to be more costly in terms o…

Article

Reluctant Nationalists: Federal Administration and Administrative Law in the Republican Era, 1801-1829

Jerry L. Mashaw

In 1801 the Jeffersonian Republicans took charge of Congress, the presidency, and the national administration, determined to roll back the state-building excesses of their Federalist predecessors. In this effort they were partially successful. But the tide of history and the demands of a growing nat…

Article

Property and Half-Torts

Lee Anne Fennell

116 Yale L.J. 1400 (2007)

The idea that a tort can be split analytically into two parts—risk and harm—underlies a great deal of torts scholarship. Yet the notion has been all but ignored by property scholars employing Calabresi and Melamed’s famous entitlement framework. Thus, in discussing an “ent…

Article

Risk Aversion and Rights Accretion in Intellectual Property Law

James Gibson

116 Yale L.J. 882 (2007)

Intellectual property’s road to hell is paved with good intentions. Because liability is difficult to predict and the consequences of infringement are dire, risk-averse intellectual property users often seek a license when none is needed. Yet because the existence (vel non)…

Article

The Constitutional Foundations of Chenery

Kevin M. Stack

116 Yale L.J. 952 (2007)

The Supreme Court regularly upholds federal legislation on grounds other than those stated by Congress. Likewise, an appellate court may affirm a lower court judgment even if the lower court’s opinion expressed the wrong reasons for it. Not so in the case of judicial review…

Article

Chevron as a Voting Rule

Jacob E. Gersen & Adrian Vermeule

116 Yale L.J. 676 (2007)

In Chevron U.S.A. Inc. v. Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc., the Supreme Court created a new framework for judicial deference to agency interpretations of law: courts should defer to an agency interpretation unless the relevant statute is clear or the agency interpret…

Article

The Corporate Origins of Judicial Review

Mary Sarah Bilder

116 Yale L.J. 502 (2006)

This Article argues that the origins of judicial review lie in corporate law. Diverging from standard historical accounts that locate the origins in theories of fundamental law or in the American structure of government, the Article argues that judicial review was the continu…

Article

Unpacking the Household: Informal Property Rights Around the Hearth

Robert C. Ellickson

As Aristotle recognized in The Politics, the household is an indispensable building block of social, economic, and political life. A liberal society grants its citizens far wider berth to arrange their households than to choose their familial and marital relationships. Legal commentators, however, h…

Article

Education, Equality, and National Citizenship

Goodwin Liu

116 Yale L.J. 330 (2006)

For disadvantaged children in substandard schools, the recent success of educational adequacy lawsuits in state courts is a welcome development. But the potential of this legal strategy to advance a national goal of equal educational opportunity is limited by a sobering and l…

Article

How To Remove a Federal Judge

Saikrishna Prakash & Steven D. Smith

116 Yale L.J. 72 (2006)

Most everyone assumes that impeachment is the only means of removing federal judges and that the Constitution's grant of good-behavior tenure is an implicit reference to impeachment. This Article challenges that conventional wisdom. Using evidence from England, the colonies, a…

Article

Criminal Law Comes Home

Jeannie Suk

116 Yale L.J. 2 (2006)

Though traditionally criminal law did not reach into the home to punish domestic violence, today such intervention in the home is well accepted and steadily growing. Because we all welcome that remedial development, we have taken little notice of the legal innovations in misd…

Article

Beyond Lawrence: Metaprivacy and Punishment

Jamal Greene

115 Yale L.J. 1862 (2006)

Lawrence v. Texas remains, after three years of precedential life, an opinion in search of a principle. It is both libertarian–Randy Barnett has called it the constitutionalization of John Stuart Mill's On Liberty–and communitarian–William Eskridge has described it as the ga…

Article

Good Governance at the Supranational Scale: Globalizing Administrative Law

Daniel C. Esty

115 Yale L.J. 1490 (2006)

This Article examines the tension between the demonstrable need for structured international cooperation in a world of interdependence and the political strain that arises whenever policymaking authority is lodged in global institutions. It argues that the tools of administr…

Article

Law's Migration: American Exceptionalism, Silent Dialogues, and Federalism's Multiple Ports of Entry

Judith Resnik

115 Yale L.J. 1564 (2006)

Legal theorists are engaged in understanding the legitimacy of techniques by which principles of rights-holding travel across borders. Sovereigntists in the United States object to that migration. The history of both protest about and the incorporation of "foreign" law provi…

Article

Recovering American Administrative Law: Federalist Foundations, 1787-1801

Jerry L. Mashaw

115 Yale L.J. 1256 (2006)

By scholarly convention, federal administrative law begins in the United States in 1887 with the establishment of the Interstate Commerce Commission. Before that time the national government is perceived as a state of courts and parties in which federal administration was mi…

Article

Income Tax Discrimination and the Political and Economic Integration of Europe

Michael J. Graetz & Alvin C. Warren Jr.

115 Yale L.J. 1186 (2006)

In recent years, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) has invalidated many income tax law provisions of European Union (EU) member states as violating European constitutional treaty guarantees of freedom of movement for goods, services, persons, and capital. These decisions h…

Article

Managing Transitional Moments in Criminal Cases

Toby J. Heytens

115 Yale L.J. 922 (2006)

As long as some courts review the work of others, there will be situations in which governing precedent shifts during the interval between an initial decision and the underlying dispute's ultimate resolution. Although such "transitional moments" follow many appellate court de…

Article

Immoral Purposes: Marriage and the Genus of Illicit Sex

Ariela R. Dubler

115 Yale L.J. 756 (2006)

In Lawrence v. Texas, the Supreme Court situates its opinion within the history of laws banning sodomy. Lawrence, however, is also part of another historical narrative: the history of attempts by federal lawmakers and judges to define the relationships among the genus of illi…

Article

Anticipating Litigation in Contract Design

Robert E. Scott & George G. Triantis

115 Yale L.J. 814 (2006)

Contract theory does not address the question of how parties design contracts under the existing adversarial system, which relies on the parties to establish relevant facts indirectly by the use of evidentiary proxies. In this Article, we advance a theory of contract design i…

Article

The Constitutional Status of Tort Law: Due Process and the Right to a Law for the Redress of Wrongs

John C.P. Goldberg

115 Yale L.J. 524 (2005)

In our legal system, redressing private wrongs has tended to be the business of tort law, itself traditionally a branch of the common law. But do individuals have a "vested interest" in law that redresses wrongs? If so, do state and federal governments have a constitutional d…

Article

Jurisdictional Competition for Trust Funds: An Empirical Analysis of Perpetuities and Taxes

Robert H. Sitkoff & Max M. Schanzenbach

115 Yale L.J. 356 (2005)

This Article presents the first empirical study of the domestic jurisdictional competition for trust funds. To allow donors to exploit a loophole in the federal estate tax, since 1986 a host of states have abolished the Rule Against Perpetuities as applied to interests in tru…

Article

Rethinking Civil Rights Lawyering and Politics in the Era Before Brown

Kenneth W. Mack

115 Yale L.J. 256 (2005)

This Article argues that scholarly accounts of civil rights lawyering and politics have emphasized, incorrectly, a narrative that begins with Plessy v. Ferguson and ends with Brown v. Board of Education. That traditional narrative has relied on a legal liberal view of civil r…

Article

Fixing Freezeouts

Guhan Subramanian

115 Yale L.J. 2 (2005)

Freezeout transactions, in which a controlling shareholder buys out the minority shareholders, have occurred more frequently since the stock market downturn of 2000 and the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. While freezeouts were historically executed as statutory mergers, recent Dela…

Article

The City and the Poet

Kenji Yoshino

114 Yale L.J. 1835 (2005)

Although it is a contemporary of law and economics, law and literature has never secured widespread uptake in the legal academy. In this Article, Professor Yoshino explains the relative anemia of the discipline and prescribes a cure. Law has an incentive to distance itself f…

Article

The Sarbanes-Oxley Act and the Making of Quack Corporate Governance

Roberta Romano

114 Yale L.J. 1521 (2005)

This Article provides an evaluation of the substantive corporate governance mandates of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX) of 2002 that is informed by the relevant empirical accounting and finance literature, and of the political dynamics that produced the mandates. The empirical …

Article

Questioning the Trust Law Duty of Loyalty: Sole Interest or Best Interest?

John H. Langbein

114 Yale L.J. 929 (2005)

The duty of loyalty requires a trustee to administer the trust solely in the interest of the beneficiaries. Any transaction in which the trustee has an actual or potential interest violates the sole interest rule, no matter how beneficial the transaction to the beneficiaries.…

Article

On the Alienability of Legal Claims

Michael Abramowicz

114 Yale L.J. 697 (2005)

Courts have become increasingly skeptical of rules restricting plaintiffs' ability to sell legal claims, while legal commentators have argued that markets for claims would be economically beneficial, moving claims to those who can prosecute them most efficiently. Claim sales …

Article

The Right To Destroy

Lior Jacob Strahilevitz

114 Yale L.J. 781 (2005)

Do you have the right to destroy that which is yours? This Article addresses that fundamental question. In contested cases, courts are becoming increasingly hostile to owners' efforts to destroy their own valuable property. This sentiment has been echoed in the legal academy,…

Article

The Defined Contribution Paradigm

Edward A. Zelinsky

114 Yale L.J. 451 (2004)

Pension cognoscenti have frequently remarked on the stagnation of defined benefit pensions and the concomitant rise of defined contribution plans. This Article suggests that over the last generation something more fundamental, which can justly be called a paradigm shift, has…

Article

The Federalist Dimension of Regulatory Takings Jurisprudence

Stewart E. Sterk

114 Yale L.J. 203 (2004)

Federalism concerns, underappreciated in the takings literature, play an important role in shaping the Supreme Court's takings jurisprudence. The Takings Clause does not guarantee any particular property rights; instead, the Clause protects primarily against change in backgro…

Article

The Future of Disability Law

Samuel R. Bagenstos

114 Yale L.J. 1 (2004)

Since its enactment in 1990, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) has dominated discussions of disability law in the legal academy. While the ADA's achievements must be celebrated, the statute's limitations have become increasingly apparent. In particular, the statute appe…

Article

The Eleventh Amendment and the Reading of Precise Constitutional Texts

John F. Manning

113 Yale L.J. 1663 (2004)

INTRODUCTION

In recent years, the Supreme Court has frequently observed that most statutes involve compromise. In particular, when Congress enacts a clear and precise statutory text--one that articulates not only a set of relevant aims but also the specific means of their …

Article

The Paradox of Parliamentary Supremacy: Delegation, Democracy, and Dictatorship in Germany and France, 1920s-1950s

Peter L. Lindseth

113 Yale L.J. 1341 (2004)

The struggle to define the role of the legislature in the modern administrative state has been central to constitutional politics in Western countries. That struggle was especially intense in Germany and France from the 1920s to the 1950s. Contrary to claims of certain inte…

Article

Contract and Collaboration

Daniel Markovits

113 Yale L.J. 1417 (2004)

Promises and contracts establish relations among the persons who engage them, and these relations lie at the center of persons' moral and legal experience of one another. But the most prominent accounts of these practices nevertheless remain firmly individualistic, seeking …

Article

The Two Western Cultures of Privacy: Dignity Versus Liberty

James Q. Whitman

113 Yale L.J. 1151 (2004)

Privacy advocates often like to claim that all modern societies feel the same intuitive need to protect privacy. Yet it is clear that intuitive sensibilities about privacy differ from society to society, even as between the closely kindred societies of the United States and …

Article

The Integration of Tax and Spending Programs

David A. Weisbach & Jacob Nussim

113 Yale L.J. 955 (2004)

This Article provides a theory for deciding when a spending program should be implemented through the tax system. The decision is traditionally thought to be based on considerations of tax policy. The most common theories are the comprehensive tax base theory and the tax expe…

Article

Offering an Invisible Hand: The Rise of the Personal Choice Model for Rationing Public Benefits

David A. Super

113 Yale L.J. 815 (2004)

The 1996 welfare law passed amidst promises to reduce welfare rolls without abandoning needy families. A strong economy, state work support programs, and the efforts of millions of low-income parents brought substantial reductions in the ranks of those eligible for cash assis…

Article

Contract Theory and the Limits of Contract Law

Alan Schwartz & Robert E. Scott

113 Yale L.J. 541 (2003)

This Article sets out a normative theory to guide decisionmakers in the regulation of contracts between firms. Commercial law for centuries has drawn a distinction between mercantile contracts and others, but modern scholars have not systematically pursued the normative impli…

Article

Punitive Damages as Societal Damages

Catherine M. Sharkey

113 Yale L.J. 347 (2003)

Jury awards of "classwide" punitive damages provide windfalls to individual plaintiffs, particularly in products liability, fraud, civil rights, and employment discrimination cases. This suggests a new angle from which to approach the ongoing punitive damages debate. Under cu…

Article

How To Fix Wall Street: A Voucher Financing Proposal for Securities Intermediaries

Stephen J. Choi & Jill E. Fisch

113 Yale L.J. 269 (2003)

Securities market intermediaries reduce the collective action problem facing investors in the capital markets. Analysts provide securities research. Proxy advisory firms assist investors in determining how to vote their shares. Even shareholders bringing proxy contests can be…

Article

An Old Judicial Role for a New Litigation Era

Jonathan T. Molot

113 Yale L.J. 27 (2003)

Because litigation has changed so dramatically in the last half century, scholars tend to view contemporary civil procedure as raising new problems that require new solutions. We have overlooked that many of these problems can be explained, and even resolved, using an age-old …

Article

Legislative Constitutionalism and Section Five Power: Policentric Interpretation of the Family and Medical Leave Act

Robert C. Post & Reva B. Siegel

112 Yale L.J. 1943 (2003)

The Court is now striking down a variety of federal civil rights statutes as beyond Congress's power under Section 5 of the Fourteenth Amendment. In imposing limits on federal authority to enact civil rights laws, the Court has invoked a particular understanding of separatio…

Article

The Sanitized Workplace

Vicki Schultz

112 Yale L.J. 2061 (2003)

One of American society's most cherished beliefs is that the workplace is, or should be, asexual. This ethic is a legacy of our historic commitment to a conception of organizational rationality that treats sexuality as irrational and unproductive--a conception that had come …

Article

What Kind of Immunity? Federal Officers, State Criminal Law, and the Supremacy Clause

Seth P. Waxman & Trevor W. Morrison

112 Yale L.J. 1943 (2003)

When, if ever, may a State prosecute a federal officer for violating state criminal law while discharging his federal duties? Over the past decade, developments in the doctrines associated with "federalism" have redefined the constitutional status of federal attempts to regu…

Article

In the Shadow of Marriage: Single Women and the Legal Construction of the Family and the State

Ariela R. Dubler

112 Yale L.J. 1641 (2003)

This Article argues that the law has constructed marriage as an institution capable of regulating the rights and responsibilities of even unmarried women. In various ways, the law has constructed the rights of certain groups of unmarried women "in the shadow of marriage": Th…

Article

Conspiracy Theory

Neal Kumar Katyal

112 Yale L.J. 1307 (2003)

Over one-quarter of all federal criminal prosecutions and a large number of state cases involve prosecutions for conspiracy. Yet, the major scholarly articles and the bulk of prominent jurists have roundly condemned the doctrine. This Article offers a functional justificatio…

Article

Piercing the Veil

Madhavi Sunder

112 Yale L.J. 1399 (2003)

Human rights law has a problem with religion. In a postmodern world in which the nation-state has been deconstructed and eighteenth- and nineteenth-century notions of unmediated national sovereignty have been properly put to rest, religion--and its attendant category, cultur…

Article

Chaos and Rules: Should Responses to Violent Crises Always Be Constitutional?

Oren Gross

112 Yale L.J. 1011 (2003)

This Article suggests that legal models that have been traditionally invoked in the context of fashioning responses to emergencies may not always be adequate. Rather, there may be circumstances when the appropriate method of tackling grave threats entails going outside the l…

Article

Why Above-Cost Price Cuts To Drive Out Entrants Are Not Predatory--and the Implications for Defining Costs and Market Power

Einer Elhauge

112 Yale L.J. 681 (2003)

Recently, European and U.S. officials have made surprising moves toward restricting firms from using above-cost price cuts to drive out entrants. This Article argues that these legal developments likely reflect the fact that scholarly critiques of cost-based tests of predator…

Article

Coase's Penguin, or, Linux and The Nature of the Firm

Yochai Benkler

112 Yale L.J. 369 (2002)

For decades our common understanding of the organization of economic production has been that individuals order their productive activities in one of two ways: either as employees in firms, following the directions of managers, or as individuals in markets, following price si…

Article

Are Police Free To Disregard Miranda?

Steven D. Clymer

112 Yale L.J. 447 (2002)

This Article contends that the common understanding of Miranda as a direct restraint on custodial interrogation by police is mistaken. Instead, Miranda, like the privilege against compulsory self-incrimination that serves as its constitutional foundation, is a rule of admissi…

Article

The Birth of an Academic Obsession: The History of the Countermajoritarian Difficulty, Part Five

Barry Friedman

112 Yale L.J. 153 (2002)

How is it that the countermajoritarian difficulty became the central frame for constitutional theory for the last fifty years? That is the question taken up in this, the last installment of The History of the Countermajoritarian Difficulty. The piece explains that the counter…

Article

The Freedom of Imagination: Copyright's Constitutionality

Jed Rubenfeld

112 Yale L.J. 1 (2002)

In some parts of the world, you can go to jail for reciting a poem in public without permission from state-licensed authorities. Where is this true? One place is the United States of America.

Copyright law is a kind of giant First Amendment duty-free zone. It flouts basic fr…

Article

The Political Economy of School Choice

James E. Ryan & Michael Heise

111 Yale L.J. 2043 (2002)

This Article examines the political economy of school choice and focuses on the role of suburbanites. This group has re- ceived little attention in the commentary but is probably the most important and powerful stakeholder in choice debates. Suburbanites generally do not sup…

Article

Do Human Rights Treaties Make a Difference?

Oona A. Hathaway

111 Yale L.J. 1870 (2002)

Do countries comply with the requirements of human rights treaties that they join? Are these treaties effective in chan- ging changing states' behavior for the better? This Article addresses these questions through a large-scale quan- titative analysis of the relationship be…

Article

The Law and Economics of Reverse Engineering

Pamela Samuelson & Suzanne Scotchmer

111 Yale L.J. 1575 (2002)

Reverse engineering has a long history as an accepted practice. What it means, broadly speaking, is the process of extracting know-how or knowledge from a human-made artifact. Lawyers and economists have endorsed reverse engineering as an appropriate way to obtain such info…

Article

The Storrs Lectures: Liberals and Romantics at War: The Problem of Collective Guilt

George P. Fletcher

111 Yale L.J. 1499 (2002)

Somehow we in the West thought the age of war was behind us. After nuking Hiroshima, after napalming Vietnam, we had only distaste for the idea and the practice of war. The thought of dying for a noble cause, the pursuit of honor in the name of patria, brotherhood in arms--n…

Article

Framing Transactions in Constitutional Law

Daryl J. Levinson

111 Yale L.J. 1311 (2002)

Common-law rules and adjudication are typically structured around discrete interactions between strangers. The unit of legal analysis, or "transaction," is intuitively defined by the discontinuous event that disrupted the otherwise unrelated lives of the parties; and the foc…

Article

Waging War, Deciding Guilt: Trying the Military Tribunals

Neal Kumar Kaytal & Laurence H. Tribe

111 Yale L.J. 1259 (2002)

In this Essay, we argue that President Bush's recent Military Order, which directs his Defense Department to detain any members of an ill-defined class of individuals, potentially indefinitely, and to try them in military tribunals, jeopardizes the separation of powers today…

Article

The Anti-Antidiscrimination Agenda

Jed Rubenfeld

111 Yale L.J. 1141 (2002)

For a brief historical moment, a shadow overhung constitutional law--the shadow of Bush v. Gore. Many people consider the five-Justice majority opinion in that case to have been, legally speaking, a kind of joke. Obviously, those who hold this view wonder whether that case …

Article

Architecture as Crime Control

Neal Kumar Kaytal

111 Yale L.J. 1039 (2002)

Building on work in architectural theory, Professor Katyal demonstrates how attention to cities, neighborhoods, and individual buildings can reduce criminal activity. The field of cyberlaw has been transformed by the insight that architecture can regulate behavior in cybersp…

Article

Covering

Kenji Yoshino

111 Yale L.J. 769 (2002)

In this article, Professor Yoshino considers how the gay civil rights movement might enright the American civil rights paradigm, which he takes to be predicated on the paradigm classifications of race and sex. He posits that gays may be able to contribute a more robust theory…

Article

Givings

Abraham Bell & Gideon Parchomovsky

111 Yale L.J. 547 (2001)

Givings-government acts that enhance property value-are omnipresent. Yet they have received scant scholarly attention and no consistent doctrinal or theoretical treatment. Although givings and takings are mirror images of one another and are of equal practical and theoretical…

Article

Corporations and Human Rights: A Theory of Legal Responsibility

Steven R. Ratner

111 Yale L.J. 443 (2001)

The path of international law over the last century has been one of increasing both the breadth and the depth of its coverage. Its breadth has grown through the addition of new areas for regulation, whether the environment, telecommunications, health, or human rights; and its…

Article

The Executive Power over Foreign Affairs

Saikrishna B. Prakash & Michael D. Ramsey

111 Yale L.J. 231 (2001)

This Article presents a comprehensive textual framework for the allocation of the foreign affairs powers of the United States government. The authors argue that modern scholarship has too hastily given up on the Constitution's text and too quickly concluded that the Constitut…

Article

A Dilution Mechanism for Valuing Corporations in Bankruptcy

Barry E. Adler & Ian Ayres

111 Yale L.J. 83 (2001)

This Article proposes a new mechanism for valuing firms in bankruptcy. Under the "senior dilution" mechanism, a court would dilute the reorganized stock issued to senior claimants by issuing additional shares to junior claimants until there was no excess demand for the stock a…

Article

The Rise of Dispersed Ownership The Roles of Law and the State in the Separation of Ownership and Control

John C. Coffee Jr.

111 Yale L.J. 1 (2001)

Deep and liquid securities markets appear to be an exception to a worldwide pattern in which concentrated ownership dominates dispersed ownership. Recent commentary has argued that a dispersed shareholder base is unlikely to develop in civil-law countries and transitional econo…

Article

Currency Policies and Legal Development in Colonial New England

Claire Priest

110 Yale L.J. 1303 (2001)

This Article presents a new interpretation of the relation of law to economic development in colonial New England. Prior legal historical scholarship has focused almost exclusively on judicial decisionmaking, emphasizing judges' role in adapting the law in some optimal way …

Article

Judicial Fact-Finding and Sentence Enhancements in a World of Guilty Pleas

Stephanos Bibas

110 Yale L.J. 1097 (2001)

Last June, in Apprendi v. New Jersey, the Supreme Court held that any fact that increases a defendant's statutory maximum sentence must be proved to a jury beyond a reasonable doubt. This rule, like most of criminal procedure law and scholarship, rests on the assumption that…

Article

Federal Regulation of State Court Procedures

Anthony J. Bellia Jr.

110 Yale L.J. 947 (2001)

May Congress regulate the procedures by which state courts adjudicate claims arising under state law? Recently, Congress not only has considered several bills that would do so, but has enacted a few of them. This Article concludes that such laws exceed Congress's constitution…

Article

Rethinking the Puzzle of Escalating Penalties for Repeat Offenders

David A. Dana

110 Yale L.J. 733 (2001)

The general principle of escalating penalties based on offense history is so widely accepted that it strikes most people as simple common sense. This principle, however, tests the explanatory limits of economics. Contrary to the assumptions in the existing literature, probabi…

Article

The Liberal Commons

Hanoch Dagan & Michael A. Heller

110 Yale L.J. 549 (2001)

Must we choose between the benefits of cooperative use of scarce resources and our liberal commitments to autonomy and exit? No. Well-tailored law can mediate between community and liberty, between commons and private property. Our theory of the liberal commons provides a fra…

Article

The Essential Role of Organizational Law

Henry Hansmann & Reinier Kraakman

110 Yale L.J. 387 (2000)

In every developed market economy, the law provides for a set of standard-form legal entities. In the United States, these entities include, among others, the business corporation, the cooperative corporation, the nonprofit corporation, the municipal corporation, the limited …

Article

A Liberal Theory of Social Welfare: Fairness, Utility, and the Pareto Principle

Howard F. Chang

110 Yale L.J. 173 (2000)

Amartya Sen shows how liberal rights can produce outcomes that everyone would prefer to avoid, thereby violating the Pareto principle. Similarly, Louis Kaplow and Steven Shavell identify potential conflicts between the Pareto principle and notions of "fairness," which give we…

Article

Optimal Standardization in the Law of Property: The Numerus Clausus Principle

Thomas W. Merrill & Henry E. Smith

110 Yale L.J. 1 (2000)

In all postfeudal legal systems, the basic ways of owning property are limited in number and standardized, in the sense that courts will enforce as property only interests that are built from a list of recognized forms. In the common law, this principle has no name and is invok…