119 Yale L.J. 1362 (2010).
The dominant story of America’s so-called “Gilded Age” describes an era of private excess and public corruption. In a rapidly industrializing society, private capital, in league with venal politicians, ran roughshod over a national state apparatus incapable of responding to the emerging social and economic needs of the day. Only toward the end of this era, with the passage of the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887, did the national government begin to break free from a laissez-faire ideology that was antithetical to state building in virtually all of its forms. Indeed, on this conventional account, the American administrative state, and with it administrative law, only began to emerge in the early twentieth century. And both remained underdeveloped until the New Deal constitutional revolution.
There is much truth to this familiar narrative, but it is far from the whole truth. State capacities built steadily throughout the post-Reconstruction era. Congress created multiple new departments, bureaus, and programs, and federal civilian employment grew much more rapidly than population. Just as today, conflicts between political parties, the drama of electoral politics, and the vagaries of congressional lawmaking dominated the headlines. But the day-to-day activities of government were in the charge of administrative departments and bureaus. Operating under broad delegations of authority, administrators developed a rich internal law of administration that guided massive administrative adjudicatory activity and substantial regulatory action as well. Moreover, policy innovation at the legislative level depended heavily on the research and recommendations of existing administrative agencies. In short, if we look at legislative and administrative practice rather than at constitutional ideology or political rhetoric, we can see the emergence of a national administrative state and national administrative law before either had a name.
119 Yale L.J. 1474 (2010).
The Supreme Court has yet to adopt and apply a standard for assessing labor rights claims under the Involuntary Servitude Clause. This Article suggests that one may be found in the leading decision of Pollock v. Williams (1944), which contains the Court’s most thorough discussion of the interpretive issues. Under Pollock, a claimed right should be protected if it is necessary to provide workers with the “power below” and employers the “incentive above” to prevent “a harsh overlordship or unwholesome conditions of work.” Although this is not the only conceivable standard, it does fit well with the text, history, and case law of the Amendment. The absence of any racial element, which might appear dishonest in light of the fact that most of the leading cases involved workers of color, nevertheless corresponds to the Amendment’s original meaning and appears to have important advantages from a doctrinal point of view. The Article discusses the legal and philosophical justifications of various labor rights in relation to the Pollock standard, including the right to quit, the right to change employers, the right to name the wages for which one is willing to work, and the right to strike.
119 Yale L.J. 1568 (2010).
In the decade following Seminole Tribe’s ruling that Article I is not a grant of authority to abrogate state sovereign immunity, scholars and courts overwhelmingly agreed that the Eleventh Amendment barred Congress from subjecting states to suit in bankruptcy proceedings. The Court has since backpedaled, holding in Katz that the states ceded their sovereign immunity when they ratified the Bankruptcy Clause. Katz, however, leaves much unsettled—including whether the ratifying states intended to cede their immunity defenses to suits seeking monetary damages. There is also reason to doubt Katz’s durability: beyond the serious flaws in its reasoning, Eleventh Amendment precedents perish and reanimate with the changing composition of the Court, and mere days after Katz was handed down, Justice O’Connor, who provided the fifth vote for the majority, was replaced by Justice Alito. The prospect that Katz may be overruled or cabined has caused anxiety for scholars and practioners who convincingly argue that the bankruptcy system cannot effectively function unless the states, like private creditors, are subject to the binding jurisdiction of bankruptcy tribunals.
In an effort to insure against Katz’s rollback, this Note offers a new theory for how Congress could invoke its enforcement powers under Section 5 of the Fourteenth Amendment to authorize suits against the state for bankruptcy violations. Borrowing from the case law on statutory entitlements and procedural due process, the Note argues that like welfare, public education, and government employment, bankruptcy protections are property interests cognizable under the Due Process Clause. Because these property interests are conferred by the federal government and binding on the states, a state that tramples on an individual's bankruptcy rights in violation of federal law effects an unconstitutional deprivation of property without due process.
119 Yale L.J. 1638 (2010).
While proponents of the bonding hypothesis have posited that foreign firms crosslist in the United States to signal compliance with the strict U.S. corporate governance regime, these scholars have taken the enforcement of U.S. securities laws largely for granted. This Note presents an empirical examination of previously unexplored data on the enforcement of U.S. securities laws against foreign issuers. The results suggest that relative to domestic issuers, foreign issuers in the United States have benefited not only from a more lax set of rules, but also from a more forgiving public enforcement agency. At the same time, U.S. courts have limited private enforcement against foreign issuers, thus restricting an alternative to public enforcement and further widening the gap between the corporate governance regime for U.S. issuers and the one for foreign issuers.
119 Yale L.J. 1703 (2010).
119 Yale L.J. 1715 (2010).
119 Yale L.J. 1727 (2010).
119 Yale L.J. 1739 (2010).